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Pouvoir et potentiel

A Comparative Analysis of National Laws and Regulations Concerning Women's Rights to Community Forests

Auteur: Rights and Resources Initiative

Date: mai 24, 2017

(Le rapport final sera bientôt disponible)

Quelques 2,5 milliards de personnes occupent et utilisent des territoires sous gouverne collectifs dans le monde aujourd’hui. Pourtant, il est rare que les droits fonciers des femmes, qui représentent plus de la moitié de la population des peuples autochtones et des communautés locales, soient reconnus ou protégés par les lois nationales. Bien que les normes liées au genre et la sécurité de la tenure forestière des femmes varient considérablement selon les systèmes de fonciers communautaires, la présente analyse révèle que les lois et les règlementations nationales (communément appelées « lois statutaires » régissant les droits coutumiers et communautaires) sont majoritairement injustes envers les femmes autochtones et rurales, et loin de se conformer aux exigences du droit international et des normes qui s’y rapportent, notamment en matière d’appartenance, de gouvernance, de résolution de conflits et de succession.

Les 30 pays à revenu faible et intermédiaire (PRFI) analysés dans cette étude peinent à remplir leurs obligations de protéger les droits légaux des femmes en vertu de la Convention sur l’élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination à l’égard des femmes (CEDAW) et les normes prescrites dans les Directives volontaires pour une gouvernance responsable des régimes fonciers applicables aux terres, aux pêches et aux forêts dans le contexte de la sécurité alimentaire nationale (VGGT) et les Objectifs de développement durable. En plus d’aller à l’encontre de coutumes équitables en matière de genre chez certaines communautés autochtones et locales, le manque de protection légale pour les femmes autochtones et rurales tend à engendrer des pratiques discriminatoires qui affaiblissent les droits de ces dernières, menaçant leurs moyens de subsistance, le bien-être de leurs familles et le développement de leurs communautés.

  • Conclusions Principales
  • Infographie
  • Analyse Connexe

Conclusions Principales

Governments are not respecting indigenous and rural women’s tenure rights and are failing to meet international obligations to do so in all 30 low- and middle-income countries assessed.

  • All of the countries analyzed have ratified the UN Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and yet not one meets the minimum standards established in the convention.
  • Of the 30 low- and middle-income countries assessed, results for the three overarching rights that affect all women in a country:
    • Only eight of the 30 countries have intestate inheritance laws that provide equal protections.
    • More than a third of the countries assessed (India, Indonesia, Kenya, Mali, Myanmar, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Senegal, Tanzania, and Zambia) have laws that legally discriminate against daughters, widows, and/or women in consensual unions, or defer to religious or customary law without safeguarding women’s inheritance rights.
    • Constitutional equal protection: 93 percent of the countries examined prohibit gender-based discrimination or explicitly guarantee women equal protection under the constitution.
    • Property rights: Only seventeen of the 30 countries analyzed specifically affirm women’s property rights.
    • Inheritance: Only eight of the 30 countries assessed mandate that daughters, widows, and unmarried women in consensual unions have equal rights to inherit alongside their male counterparts.

There are no clear winners when comparing Asia, Africa, and Latin America:

  • Countries reviewed in Africa (11) provide the most consistent affirmation of women’s property rights and greatest recognition of women’s community-level dispute-resolution rights, but they also afford indigenous and rural women the weakest community-level inheritance and voting rights.
  • Of the three regions, community-specific legal frameworks in the 10 Asian countries provide the highest level of protection for women’s community-level inheritance, voting, and leadership rights.
  • None of the Asian or African countries in the study recognize the overarching rights of unmarried women in consensual unions to inherit land through intestate succession (inheritance rights in the absence of a will), and between 45-50 percent of assessed countries in both regions do not equitably protect women’s inheritance rights.
  • The nine countries in Latin America provide the strongest protections for women’s overarching inheritance rights and greater recognition of women’s community-level membership rights, but lag behind countries in Africa and Asia with respect to women’s community-level leadership rights and the affirmation of women’s property rights in overarching laws.
  • Eight of the nine Latin American countries assessed provide equal statutory protection for the overarching inheritance rights of daughters, widows, and women in consensual unions; these are the only countries among the 30 reviewed LMICs that safeguard the inheritance rights of women in consensual unions.

There is a particularly pressing need for legal reforms regarding women’s governance (voting and leadership) and inheritance rights in community-specific legal regimes. Inheritance rights are the most ignored, while leadership rights are the least protected.

Infographie

Analyse Connexe

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